What is PRAM (NVRAM):
PRAM (parameter random access memory) and NVRAM (non-volatile random access memory) hold information about the configuration of your Mac.
It is responsible for, but not limited to your volume control, display resolution, keyboard, time, and date on your Mac.
Modern, Intel-based, Macs have NVRAM, while older PowerPC models have PRAM. You might hear people refer to PRAM when they mean NVRAM. It doesn’t really matter—they do the same jobs, just different names, and you reset them both in the same way.
Why Would You Reset PRAM (NVRAM):
Problems with the PRAM or NVRAM are often software-related. Your computer might forget certain settings or could run into connectivity problems. You can try a PRAM reset when you experience any of these symptoms:
- Display resolution changes or won’t change
- AirPort problems
- Keyboard not responding normally
- The time zone or clock is wrong
- The boot volume isn’t set (you’ll see a question mark before your computer boots up
- Strange mouse clicks and scroll speeds
- Volume control doesn’t respond properly
- Your computer shuts down slowly
How to Reset Your PRAM (NVRAM):
- Shut down your Mac completely by either pressing and hold the physical power button on your Mac or by pressing “Shut Down” on your Mac.
- Once it has completely been shut down, press the power button to turn your Mac back on.
- Before the gray screen appears, press the buttons Command, Option, P, and R keys at the same time and hold.
- Hold these keys until your Mac restarts and you hear the boot-up sounds again.
- Once you hear the boot-up sound, release the keys.
You have successfully reset your PRAM (NVRAM) and your issues should be gone. However, if your issues persist, try performing an SMC Reset, how to do that is linked in this article. I hope this helped, and if you have any questions, please let us know.